First you need to get to EU country. One can not request an asylum (or international protection) outside of the territory of that country.
What if I am detained?
Hot line 8 800 707–05–28
What documents do I need to leave Russia?
- Internal passport if travelling to some countries (see the list below)
- International passport if travelling to the rest of the countries
- Some type of Visa to be let to into a Schengen territory if travelling to Europe
What if I don't have an international passport?
Without the passport you can get only to Abkhazia, Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and the South Osetia
How to get an international passport in Russia?
You can request the services of an agency: www.o-z-p.ru The agency claims that it can grant a passport in 3 days for 42 000 ₽ (in Moscow). We have not verified this.
You can request the international passport with russian authorities: https://pasporta.org/zagranpasport/zagranpasport-cherez-mfc
The waiting period for the passport is (at least) 1 month.
How to get an international passport abroad?
You should be able to request the passport from a russian embassy abroad. It might take some time though (up to 2 months), so you might need to live there for a while. Prepare for that.
How to get a Visa with which I will be let into EU?
Your best bet is a Schengen visa (see the following section). You can request it at the embassy/consulate of an EU state that still offers Schengen visas to Russian citizens (Spain, for instance).
If the embassy/consulate of the EU country still operates in Russia, you can request Schengen visa there.